Humans have coexisted with hemp for millennia. We are only now beginning to understand all of its chemical constituents. Besides producing more than 100 cannabinoids, hemp also produces between 300-400 terpenes. Among these terpenes, pinene [pie-neen] stands out as the most common terpene found in nature and is one of the most prevalent terpenes in hemp flower. Beyond its ability to add a pleasant aroma to soaps and cosmetics, pinene is being researched for its potential therapeutic applications.

What You Will Learn

In this article, we’ll cover:

  • What is
  • Where can be found in nature
  • The applications for pinene currently being investigated by researchers

What Are Terpenes?

Terpenes are volatile aromatic hydrocarbon compounds composed of isoprene units. The number of isoprene units determines the class of terpene: monoterpenes have two isoprenes; sesquiterpenes have three; and diterpenes have four isoprenes. There are other types of terpenes, but these are the most common classes as they relate to hemp.

Terpenes typically comprise about 1-2% of the weight of a hemp flower. This may seem like a low number compared to CBD contents of 13-17%, but terpenes are powerful, and a little goes a long way.

Terpenes are produced by a wide variety of plants and even some animals. It is believed that plants produce terpenes as a way of attracting beneficial insects and warding off threats. Because terpenes are highly volatile, they contribute a great deal to the aroma of most plants and even some fungi!

Fun Fact: If you’re wondering about which animals produce terpenes, you need not look any further than your own skin! Humans produce squalene as a component of sebum.

Common Terpenes:

  • All citrus fruits contain limonene.
  • Woody spices, like cinnamon and black pepper, contain beta-caryophyllene.
  • Lavender and hops contain linalool.

What Is Pinene?

More accurately, the question should be what are? There are two pinenes found in nature: alpha-pinene (α) and beta-pinene (β). Both are monoterpenes and liquid at room temperature. α-pinene is oil- and ethanol-soluble, but not water-soluble. β-pinene is only oil-soluble. These two isomers are found in different botanical sources, though they often appear together.

Sources of α-Pinene:

  • Pine needles
  • Cedar
  • Dill
  • Basil
  • Parsley
  • Eucalyptus trees
  • Orange rinds
  • Rosemary
  • Conifers
  • Hemp

Sources of β-Pinene:

  • Pine and conifer trees
  • Hemp
  • Hops
  • Camphorweed
  • Cumin
  • Big sagebrush
  • Primary component of turpentine

Pinene has a woody, herbal, piney aroma. According to Ganjier, a cannabis sommelier certification program, pinene is the dominant terpene in about 7% of all cannabis cultivars.

Infographic about the Terpene Pinene

What Is Pinene Used For?

You will commonly find pinene as a flavor and fragrance additive in foods, soaps, cosmetics, and insect repellents.

Historical medical texts indicate that α-pinene may reduce the unwanted intoxicating effects of THC. Modern researchers are investigating this claim. Pine nuts and pistachios were commonly prescribed as an antidote to cannabis intoxication.

In Japan, there is a practice called shinrin-yoku, or “forest bathing,” which may rely partly on pinene emitted by pine trees. The idea of forest bathing is not a new one, but in recent years it has garnered attention from researchers. Walking in a forest for relaxation may lead to beneficial health effects. Researchers have shown that inhaling the volatile aromatic compounds emitted by pine trees, including pinene, can open up airways (bronchodilation) and lead to a sense of calm.

Although pinene has been used for centuries in folk medicine and aromatherapy, scientific research is still needed to confirm (or debunk) these uses.

Potential Benefits:


  • Antimicrobial
  • Antibiotic
  • Improve memory
  • Acne treatment
  • Bronchodilator
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Anti-anxiety


  • Antimicrobial
  • Antibiotic
  • Improve memory
  • Acne treatment
  • Bronchodilator
  • Anti-inflammatory

Pinene in Hemp Cultivars: A Comparison

To understand the importance of pinene, it’s useful to compare the presence of pinene in various hemp cultivars. Sunset Lake CBD cultivates hemp outdoors, under the sun, which encourages our hemp plants to produce higher concentrations of a wider variety of terpenes compared to hemp grown indoors. We carefully cure our hemp flower to retain as many terpenes as possible and work with third-party laboratories to understand and measure each cultivar’s terpene content. At first glance, these numbers may appear small, but terpenes are potent.

Here are some examples of hemp cultivars rich in pinene:

Hawaiian Haze:

  • 0.39% α-Pinene & 0.18% β-Pinene

Cherry Abacus:

  • 0.44% α & 0.13% β

Super Sour Space Candy:

  • 0.24% α & 0.14% β

Candy Kush:

  • 0.21% α & 0.13% β

Suver Haze:

  • 0.09% α & 0.05% β


  • 0.09% α & 0.05% β

Sour Suver Haze:

  • 0.06% α & 0.1% β

Sour Lifter:

  • 0.04% α & 0.07% β

Note: the percentage of terpenes is reported on a by-weight basis.

Research on Pinene Compared to Competitors

When comparing our findings with other leading CBD companies, it’s evident that Sunset Lake CBD’s commitment to quality and transparency sets us apart. Other companies may not provide as detailed terpene profiles, or their cultivation methods may not encourage the same diversity and concentration of terpenes. By growing hemp outdoors and using careful curing processes, we ensure our products retain a rich terpene profile, offering enhanced benefits to our customers.

For example, competitors might report lower terpene concentrations due to indoor growing conditions or less rigorous testing methods. By investing in third-party lab testing and showcasing our terpene content, we provide consumers with a clear understanding of what they’re getting in each product.

The Future of Research

While pinene’s traditional uses are well-documented, ongoing research continues to uncover new potential benefits. Scientists are exploring pinene’s role in reducing inflammation, enhancing cognitive function, and even its potential anti-cancer properties. These studies are crucial in validating the anecdotal evidence and expanding our understanding of pinene’s full therapeutic potential.

Moreover, as the legal landscape around cannabis and hemp evolves, more research opportunities will likely emerge. This could lead to the development of new products specifically designed to harness the benefits, from dietary supplements to specialized skincare products.


Pinene is a fascinating and versatile terpene with a wide range of potential benefits. From its presence in common herbs and spices to its therapeutic applications in modern medicine, pinene is a testament to the power of natural compounds. At Sunset Lake CBD, we are proud to offer hemp cultivars rich in pinene, grown with care to maximize their beneficial properties. For more information Visit Sunset Lake CBD.


What is pinene?

  • It is a common terpene found in nature, particularly in hemp, pine needles, and various herbs. It is known for its woody, herbal aroma and potential therapeutic benefits.

Where can I find pinene?

  • It is found in many plants, including pine needles, cedar, dill, basil, parsley, eucalyptus trees, orange rinds, rosemary, conifers, and hemp. It is also present in hops and some spices like cumin.

What are the benefits of pinene?

  • Potential benefits include antimicrobial, antibiotic, memory improvement, acne treatment, bronchodilation, anti-inflammatory, and anti-anxiety properties.

How is pinene used in everyday products?

  • It is commonly used as a flavor and fragrance additive in foods, soaps, cosmetics, and insect repellents due to its pleasant aroma and potential therapeutic effects.

What are the differences between α-pinene and β-pinene?

  • α-Pinene is oil- and ethanol-soluble and abundant in pine needles, cedar, and herbs like basil and rosemary. β-Pinene is only oil-soluble and found in pine and conifer trees, as well as in hops and cumin. Both have similar properties but vary in their solubility and sources.

Hemp is a majestic plant rich in active compounds like cannabinoids—CBD, THC, and CBN—flavonoids, and molecules called terpenes. Terpenes have been thrust into the spotlight thanks to some new promising findings. But as it turns out, humans have used some terpenes for centuries in folk medicine practices. One such terpene is linalool, a primary component of lavender that has been used for healing the body and mind.

What is Linalool?

Linalool (“li-nal-oh-awl”) is rarely the dominant terpene in hemp, but it still plays a significant role in hemp’s aromatic profile. In addition to hemp and lavender, linalool can be found in many fruits and spices, including some varieties of citrus, mint, and hops.

Pronunciation Note:

Linalool looks like it should be pronounced “lin-ah-lewel,” but the correct pronunciation is “li-nal-oh-awl.” This odd pronunciation is due to the fact that the word is a combination of lináloe, a family of trees found in Mexico, and the suffix -ol, indicating that it is an alcohol molecule.

Linalool smells like, is found in these hemp strains, and found in... infographic

Overview of Terpenes

Terpenes are a class of volatile aromatic hydrocarbons made of isoprene units. The number of isoprene units determines the class of terpene: monoterpenes have two isoprenes, sesquiterpenes have three, and diterpenes have four isoprenes. There are other classes of terpenes, but these will suffice for our purposes here. Terpenes typically comprise about 1-2% of the weight of a hemp flower.

Terpenes are produced by many plants and even some animals. It is believed that plants produce terpenes as a way of repelling pests and attracting beneficial insects. The aroma of many plants is dictated, at least partially, by terpenes.

Common Terpenes:

  • Black pepper and cinnamon get some of their kick from beta-caryophyllene.
  • Chamomile gets its sweet floral scent from bisabolol.
  • Apples and cumin contain terpinolene.
  • Mangoes and cannabis contain high concentrations of myrcene.

Sources of Linalool

Linalool is a liquid at room temperature and is classified as a monoterpene alcohol. It was first isolated in 1875 from Cayenne Bois de Rose (rosewood) oil. Linalool is found in nature in a variety of sources, including many varieties of trees, roses, mint, basil, some citrus, hops, lavender, and hemp.

Botanists are still trying to sort out exactly why plants, including hemp, produce terpenes. So far, signs seem to point to terpenes as a defense mechanism against predators who might chomp on the flowers.

Interesting Fact:

Linalool is present in hops and can contribute significantly to the aroma of some craft beers, particularly dry-hopped lagers!

Linalool is not likely to be the dominant terpene in any given hemp cultivar, but there are some cultivars that contain significant quantities. Later in this post, we’ll share a list of the cultivars grown by Sunset Lake CBD and their linalool content.

Uses of Linalool

As an isolated chemical, linalool is mostly discussed in the production of vitamins, both as an intermediary and a byproduct. But as a constituent of many plant essential oils, linalool has been used by humans for centuries. For example, lavender flowers contain a significant amount of linalool and were widely used in ancient times by various groups around the Mediterranean, including the Greeks, Romans, and Persians. Knowledge of lavender’s healing power spread east, finding its way into Indian and Tibetan pharmacopeias. It was used for a wide variety of ailments including sleeplessness, pain, and topical healing.

Many products marketed as calming and relaxing are lavender-scented. Candles, incense, and some neck pillows are often treated with lavender essential oil to promote relaxation.

Potential Benefits of Linalool

With public interest in terpenes on the rise, scientific research into compounds like linalool is accelerating.

Potential Benefits:

  • Anti-anxiety
  • Sedative
  • Local anesthetic
  • Analgesic
  • Anti-convulsant
  • Burn treatment
  • Anti-depressant
  • Anti-parasite

Research is still ongoing, and we must be patient before jumping to conclusions about what linalool can and cannot do.

Sunset Lake CBD Cultivars Featuring Linalool

We grow our hemp under the sun at our farm in the Champlain Islands of Vermont with a particular focus on encouraging terpene production. We work with third-party certified testing laboratories to understand the terpene content from each harvest.

2022 Cultivars and Their Linalool Content:

  • Suver Haze – 0.06%
  • Lifter – 0.06%
  • Hawaiian Haze – 0.03%
  • Cherry Abacus – 0.02%
  • Sour Lifter – 0.02%
  • Candy Kush – 0.02%
  • Super Sour Space Candy – 0.02%

Additional Insights on Linalool and Its Competitors

Comparison with Other Terpenes

While linalool is known for its calming and relaxing properties, other terpenes have unique benefits and characteristics. For instance, myrcene, found in mangoes and cannabis, is known for its sedative effects, making it popular for evening use. Beta-caryophyllene, present in black pepper and cinnamon, has been studied for its anti-inflammatory and pain-relief properties, offering potential therapeutic benefits for chronic pain conditions.

Terpenes like limonene, found in citrus fruits, are known for their uplifting and mood-enhancing effects. Limonene is often used in aromatherapy to reduce stress and anxiety, similar to linalool but with a more invigorating aroma. By understanding the diverse effects of different terpenes, consumers can make more informed choices about the hemp products they use, tailoring their selection to their specific needs and preferences.

Linalool in the Broader Market

Linalool is not just confined to hemp and lavender; it plays a significant role in the broader market of aromatherapy and essential oils. Products containing linalool are often marketed for their ability to reduce stress and promote relaxation. The essential oil industry has seen a surge in popularity, with consumers seeking natural remedies for common ailments. Linalool’s presence in essential oils like lavender oil makes it a staple in many households for promoting sleep and easing anxiety.

In comparison to synthetic compounds, linalool offers a natural alternative with a long history of use in traditional medicine. This trend towards natural products has driven demand for linalool-rich items, from candles and diffusers to skincare and wellness products. Understanding the market trends and consumer preferences can help companies like Sunset Lake CBD position their products more effectively.

Scientific Research and Future Potential

The scientific community continues to explore the potential benefits of linalool. Recent studies have focused on its neuroprotective properties, suggesting that linalool may have a role in protecting against neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s. These findings open up new possibilities for linalool in the pharmaceutical industry, where it could be developed into treatments for a variety of neurological conditions.

Moreover, linalool’s anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties are of great interest for developing new pain relief medications. As research progresses, we may see linalool being incorporated into mainstream medical treatments, further validating its therapeutic potential.

Consumer Education and Awareness

Educating consumers about the benefits and uses of linalool is crucial for increasing its adoption. Many people are unaware of the diverse applications and potential health benefits of this terpene. By providing clear and accessible information, companies can empower consumers to make informed choices. This education can be facilitated through blog posts, informational videos, and product labels that highlight the presence and benefits of linalool.

Consumers are increasingly looking for transparency and authenticity in the products they purchase. Highlighting the natural origins and traditional uses of linalool can resonate with this audience, fostering trust and loyalty. By positioning linalool as a key ingredient in their products, companies can tap into the growing market for natural wellness solutions.


Linalool is a fascinating terpene with a rich history and a promising future. Its calming and therapeutic properties make it a valuable component in both traditional and modern applications. As scientific research continues to uncover new benefits, and consumer awareness grows, linalool is poised to become a staple in the wellness industry. For more information visit our website.


  1. What is linalool?
    • It is a monoterpene alcohol found in various plants, including hemp and lavender, known for its aromatic properties and potential therapeutic benefits.
  2. Where can linalool be found naturally?
    • It is found in many plants such as lavender, citrus fruits, mint, hops, basil, and some varieties of trees and roses.
  3. What are the potential benefits of linalool?
    • Potential benefits include anti-anxiety, sedative, local anesthetic, analgesic, anti-convulsant, burn treatment, anti-depressant, and anti-parasite properties.
  4. Why does hemp produce linalool?
    • It is believed that hemp produces linalool and other terpenes as a defense mechanism against pests and to attract beneficial insects.
  5. How is linalool used in everyday products?
    • Linalool is used in products like lavender-scented candles, incense, neck pillows, and essential oils to promote relaxation and calmness.

You may already know about the cannabinoids CBD and THC, but there are hundreds of other compounds that hemp produces. One such class of compounds gaining attention is terpenes. Researchers are investigating how terpenes affect humans when consumed and their potential uses. Beta-Caryophyllene (“bay-tah carey-oh-fi-leen”) is one of the major terpenes found in hemp and plays a significant role in how hemp smells. You probably have some beta-caryophyllene in your kitchen and might not know it. Many spices, like black pepper and cinnamon, contain beta-caryophyllene.

In this post, we’ll discuss:

  • What beta-caryophyllene is
  • Where beta-caryophyllene can be found in nature
  • What research says about beta-caryophyllene’s potential benefits


Continue reading “Terpene Spotlight: Beta-Caryophyllene”

You may have come across the term “terpenes” while shopping for hemp CBD products and wondered, “What’s that?” Hemp plants produce hundreds of active compounds. Research into these compounds beyond just CBD and THC is ramping up. Terpenes not only play a major role in how hemp smells but they’re also believed to change how you feel when using different hemp cultivars. Limonene (“lie-muh-neen“) is a commonly found terpene in hemp and cannabis. You may already be familiar with limonene but didn’t know its name. All citrus fruits contain limonene as it’s a major component of citrus’s aromatic profile.

In this post, we’ll discuss:

  • What limonene is
  • Where you can find limonene in nature
  • What research says about its potential benefits

What Are Terpenes?

Before diving into limonene, let’s explore terpenes as a whole. Found in many plants and some animals, terpenes are aromatic volatile hydrocarbons composed of individual isoprene molecules. Terpenes are classified by how many of these isoprene building blocks they contain. Monoterpenes (two isoprenes), sesquiterpenes (three isoprenes), and diterpenes (four isoprenes) are the most common types of terpenes. Terpenes typically account for 1-2% of hemp flower’s weight.

The aromatic profiles of many plants rely on these highly volatile terpene compounds. You may already be familiar with many terpenes but might not know their names.

Examples of terpenes include:

  • Mangoes and hops contain myrcene.
  • Black pepper and cinnamon owe their aroma to beta-caryophyllene.
  • Turpentine lends its name to terpinolene.
  • Chamomile tea contains bisabolol.

Terpenes serve several roles in plants. They can act as defense mechanisms against herbivores and pathogens, attract pollinators, and help plants adapt to environmental stressors. In hemp and cannabis, terpenes contribute significantly to the plant’s overall aroma and flavor profile, which can enhance the user experience.

Additionally, terpenes are gaining attention for their potential therapeutic benefits. Researchers are studying how terpenes interact with the human body and the endocannabinoid system, exploring their potential to modulate effects when used in combination with cannabinoids like CBD and THC. This phenomenon, known as the “entourage effect,” suggests that the combination of various plant compounds may be more beneficial than isolated compounds.

Read more: What Are Terpenes? Terpenes 101

What Is Limonene?

Limonene, sometimes referred to as D-limonene, is a monoterpene, meaning it’s composed of two isoprenes. But it’s limonene’s aroma that you’re probably familiar with: a sweet, citrusy, fruity scent reminiscent of tangerines and lemons. Limonene makes up a large percentage of the essential oils found in citrus rinds. Besides citrus, you may find limonene in hemp, caraway, juniper, dill, and some coniferous trees.

Fun fact: Limonene is one of the most plentiful terpenes found in plants!

Although it is rarely the dominant terpene, you may find limonene in many hemp cultivars.

![Bushel of Juniper Berries. Bushels of Juniper berries are high in limonene]

Limonene has a broad spectrum of applications. Its fresh, zesty scent makes it a popular choice in the food and beverage industry as a flavoring agent. It’s also widely used in the fragrance industry, where it adds a citrus note to perfumes, colognes, and personal care products. In the cleaning industry, limonene is valued for its grease-cutting properties and is a common ingredient in household cleaners and industrial solvents.

Bushel of Juniper Berries
Bushels of Juniper berries are high in limonene

What Is Limonene Used For?

Thanks to its bright, fresh scent, limonene is used as a flavoring agent for food & drinks, a component in many fragrances, and as an additive in cleaning products. In addition to these commercial uses, scientists are researching how it affects the human body and how it might be used in a therapeutic capacity.

Here is a short list of some potential benefits that have been researched:

  • Anti-anxiety: Studies have suggested that limonene may have anxiolytic properties, helping to reduce anxiety symptoms. This could make it a beneficial component in aromatherapy and stress-relief products.
  • Aid with gastro-oesophageal reflux: Limonene has been studied for its potential to help with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) by neutralizing stomach acids and promoting proper digestive function.
  • Antibacterial and antibiotic properties: Research indicates that limonene has antibacterial properties, which can help in fighting off bacterial infections. Its antibiotic properties may also contribute to its use in natural health products.
  • Inhibition of acne: Limonene’s antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties may help reduce acne breakouts and improve skin health.
  • Immunostimulation: Some studies suggest that limonene can boost the immune system, helping the body to fend off illnesses more effectively.
  • Anti-inflammatory: Limonene has shown promise in reducing inflammation, which could be beneficial for conditions like arthritis and other inflammatory diseases.
  • Analgesic qualities: Research has indicated that limonene may have pain-relieving properties, making it a potential natural alternative for pain management.

While some of the results look very promising, we must be patient and wait for more research to confirm any potential benefits that limonene could offer. The existing studies provide a foundation for further exploration, but comprehensive clinical trials are necessary to establish definitive therapeutic uses.

Limonene Infographic tile

Sunset Lake CBD Cultivars Featuring Limonene

Our Vermont-grown hemp naturally produces high levels of many terpenes. We send samples of our hemp cultivars to a third-party laboratory to determine the terpene profile of each. Below is a breakdown of the limonene content for the 2022 crop of Sunset Lake CBD hemp flowers. These percentages may seem small, but a little bit can be quite powerful!

  • Lifter – 0.08% limonene
  • Sour Lifter – 0.1%
  • Hawaiian Haze – 0.13%
  • Suver Haze – 0.06%
  • Sour Suver Haze – 0.2%
  • Super Sour Space Candy – 0.12%
  • Cherry Abacus – 0.13%
  • Candy Kush – 0.09%

Note: The percentage of terpenes is reported on a by-weight basis.

Comparing Limonene in Sunset Lake CBD with Competitors

When comparing Sunset Lake CBD’s limonene-rich products with those of competitors, it’s essential to consider both the quality and the terpene profiles. Many CBD companies test their products for cannabinoid content but do not provide detailed terpene profiles. At Sunset Lake CBD, we prioritize transparency and provide comprehensive terpene profiles for all our hemp flowers.

Competitor products may have varying levels of limonene, often depending on the strains they cultivate and their growing practices. For instance, some brands might focus on strains with higher overall terpene content but not necessarily high in limonene. Understanding these differences can help consumers make informed choices based on their specific needs and preferences.

Additionally, the growing environment plays a crucial role in terpene development. Our Vermont farms offer an ideal climate for hemp cultivation, promoting robust terpene production. This environmental advantage, coupled with organic farming practices, ensures that our hemp flowers are rich in natural compounds, including limonene.

Why Choose Sunset Lake CBD?

  1. Quality Assurance: We rigorously test our hemp flowers to ensure they meet high standards for cannabinoid and terpene content. Our third-party lab testing provides transparency and guarantees product purity.
  2. Organic Farming: Our hemp is grown using organic farming practices, free from synthetic pesticides and fertilizers. This commitment to organic cultivation not only benefits the environment but also results in cleaner, healthier hemp products.
  3. Detailed Terpene Profiles: Unlike many competitors, we provide detailed terpene profiles for our hemp flowers. This information helps consumers understand the specific benefits of each strain and make informed choices.
  4. High Limonene Content: Our hemp cultivars, such as Sour Suver Haze and Hawaiian Haze, are carefully selected for their high limonene content. These strains offer the distinctive citrus aroma and potential therapeutic benefits associated with limonene.


  1. What are terpenes?

Terpenes are aromatic volatile hydrocarbons found in many plants and some animals. They play a significant role in the aroma and potential effects of hemp and other plants.

  1. Where can limonene be found naturally?

Limonene is found in citrus fruits, hemp, caraway, juniper, dill, and some coniferous trees.

  1. What does limonene smell like?

Limonene has a sweet, citrusy, fruity scent reminiscent of tangerines and lemons.

  1. What are the potential benefits of limonene?

Research suggests that limonene may have anti-anxiety, antibacterial, antibiotic, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic properties, among other potential benefits.

  1. Which Sunset Lake CBD cultivars contain limonene?

Some Sunset Lake CBD cultivars that contain limonene include Lifter, Sour Lifter, Hawaiian Haze, Suver Haze, Sour Suver Haze, Super Sour Space Candy, Cherry Abacus, and Candy Kush.

As research explores all the potential benefits of Terpinolene, there is an increased public interest in learning more about the active compounds beyond just CBD and THC. Terpenes feature prominently in the discussion about how hemp can make you feel and play a major role in how hemp smells.

There are dozens of terpenes found in hemp flowers, and one of the least common terpenes is called terpinolene (“ter-pin-oh-leen”). But just because it’s not typically found in high concentrations doesn’t sideline it. In fact, some of Sunset Lake CBD flower cultivars like the 2021 Sour Lifter and 2021 Super Sour Space Candy are quite high in terpinolene!

What We’ll Cover

  • What is terpinolene?
  • Where terpinolene can be found in nature
  • What research says about its potential benefits

What Are Terpenes?

Before jumping, let’s take a moment to explore what terpenes are in general. Terpenes are aromatic, volatile hydrocarbons found in many plants and animals. Terpene molecules are composed of small units called isoprenes and are classified by the number of isoprene units they contain. The most common terpenes are monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and diterpenes.

Terpenes play a key role in the scent of many plants. You may already be familiar with many terpenes but might not know their names.

Examples of Terpenes:

  • Pine trees contain a lot of (what else) pinene.
  • Lavender gets its relaxing scent from linalool.
  • Hops and mangos get their aroma from myrcene.

What is Terpinolene?

Is a monoterpene comprised of just two isoprene units. This sweet-smelling terpene is found in apples, cumin, lilacs, nutmeg, conifer trees, tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia), and hemp. It is also one of the components of turpentine, a product made from fir trees.

Fun fact: The word “terpene” is derived from the word turpentine, which is composed primarily of pinene, carene, camphene, dipentene, and terpinolene.

Has a fresh, sweet chemical smell with notes of pinecones, apples, citrus, flowers, and pine sap.

Is typically found in small concentrations in hemp flowers and is rarely the dominant terpene in a given cultivar. Hemp cultivars feature a wide array of terpenes, and the dominant terpene is the one with the highest concentration in that specific cultivar. Below, we will discuss which of our hemp cultivars have terpinolene as the dominant terpene based on laboratory analysis.

Terpinolen smells like, is dominant in, and is found in infographic

Where Can Terpinolene Be Found in Nature?

It is not only found in hemp but also in various other plants and products. This terpene is quite versatile and widespread in nature.

Natural Sources:

  • Apples: Contributes to the fresh, crisp aroma of apples.
  • Cumin: This spice, common in many global cuisines, contains terpinolene, adding to its complex flavor profile.
  • Lilacs: These fragrant flowers owe part of their delightful scent.
  • Nutmeg: Known for its warm, spicy aroma, nutmeg also contains terpinolene.
  • Conifer Trees: This is a significant component of the fresh, piney scent of coniferous trees.
  • Tea Tree (Melaleuca alternifolia): Commonly used for its medicinal properties, tea tree oil contains terpinolene.
  • Turpentine: This product, derived from the resin of fir trees, is rich in terpinolene.

What is Terpinolene Used For?

Is used in many consumer goods like soaps, cosmetics, and perfumes. Aside from commercial uses, there is currently a wide array of ongoing research into how it affects the human body.

Potential Benefits of Terpinolene:

  • Antioxidant: This has been studied for its potential to neutralize free radicals, which can cause cellular damage and contribute to aging and various diseases.
  • Sedative: Some studies suggest that terpinolene may have sedative properties, making it useful for promoting relaxation and sleep.
  • Anti-inflammatory: Terpinolene’s anti-inflammatory effects could be beneficial in managing conditions like arthritis and other inflammatory disorders.
  • Antibacterial & Antimicrobial: Terpinolene has shown the potential to inhibit the growth of bacteria and other microbes, which makes it a valuable ingredient in personal care products and disinfectants.
  • Antifungal: As part of tea tree oil, terpinolene contributes to its antifungal properties, helping to treat conditions like athlete’s foot and fungal nail infections.
  • Larvicide: Terpinolene has been researched for its potential use as a larvicide, which could help control insect populations.
  • Insecticide: Its insecticidal properties make terpinolene a potential natural alternative to synthetic insecticides.

While research is ongoing, the jury is still out on what potential benefits terpinolene can offer.

Research and Studies of Terpinolene:

The scientific community continues to investigate the various properties and potential health benefits of terpinolene. Numerous studies have been conducted to explore its effects on human health and its practical applications.

  • Antioxidant Properties: A study published in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry highlighted terpinolene’s ability to act as an antioxidant, which could be beneficial in preventing oxidative stress-related diseases.
  • Sedative Effects: Research in the Journal of Natural Medicines suggests that terpinolene may have a calming effect, making it a potential natural remedy for insomnia and anxiety.
  • Anti-inflammatory Benefits: Findings in the European Journal of Pharmacology indicate that terpinolene has significant anti-inflammatory properties, which could help in treating inflammatory conditions.
  • Antimicrobial Activity: Studies in the International Journal of Food Microbiology have shown that terpinolene can inhibit the growth of various bacteria and fungi, supporting its use in food preservation and safety.

Sunset Lake CBD Cultivars:

Our hemp cultivars naturally contain a wide range of terpenes. We send samples of our hemp flowers to a third-party laboratory for testing to determine their terpene composition*. Here are our top cultivars that feature terpinolene as their dominant terpene:

  • Super Sour Space Candy: This cultivar contains 1.06% terpinolene, giving it a unique aroma and potential health benefits.
  • Sour Lifter: With 0.59% terpinolene, this cultivar also stands out for its distinct terpene profile.

*Note: the percentage of terpenes is reported on a by-weight basis.

Comparing Sunset Lake CBD with Competitors

When comparing Sunset Lake CBD’s terpinolene-rich cultivars with those of our competitors, it becomes clear that we offer some of the highest concentrations of this unique terpene. Many other brands do not provide detailed terpene profiles or laboratory analyses, making it difficult for consumers to understand what they are purchasing.


  1. What are terpenes?

Terpenes are aromatic compounds found in many plants and some animals, playing a key role in their scent and potential therapeutic effects.

  1. Where can terpinolene be found naturally?

It is found in apples, cumin, lilacs, nutmeg, conifer trees, tea trees, and hemp.

  1. What are the potential benefits of terpinolene?

May have antioxidant, sedative, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antimicrobial, antifungal, larvicidal, and insecticidal properties.

  1. Which Sunset Lake CBD cultivars are high?

Super Sour Space Candy (1.06% terpinolene) and Sour Lifter (0.59% terpinolene) are Sunset Lake CBD cultivars high in terpinolene.

  1. How are terpene concentrations in hemp flowers measured?

Terpene concentrations in hemp flowers are measured by weight and determined through third-party laboratory testing.

As public attention and research continue to explore all the potential benefits of hemp, many consumers are increasingly interested in cannabis’s active components beyond just CBD and THC. Terpenes feature prominently in the discussion about how hemp smells and how it makes you feel. There are dozens of terpenes found in hemp flowers, and the most common terpene in hemp is Myrcene (“mur-seen“).

What We’ll Cover

In this post, we’ll discuss:

  • What Myrcene is
  • Where you can find it in nature
  • What its potential benefits may be

What Are Terpenes?

Before we dive into Myrcene, let’s review what terpenes are. Terpenes are organic molecules responsible for the aroma of fruits, flowers, and some animals. You’ve likely encountered many in your own home without even knowing. For example, do you know that clean, acidic smell you get when you peel an orange or lemon? That’s due to a terpene called limonene, which you can find in all citrus fruits.

Examples of Terpenes

  • Pinene: Responsible for the fresh scent of pine trees (and Pinesol).
  • Linalool: Found in lavender flowers, known for its calming nature.
  • Ocimene: Gives basil its delicious, herb-y aroma.

Technically speaking, terpenes are volatile hydrocarbons, meaning they like to turn into gas and diffuse into the surrounding atmosphere. That’s why it’s easier to associate terpenes with their smell than anything else.

Read more: What Are Terpenes? Terpenes 101

What Is Myrcene?

Myrcene is a monoterpene made up of two isoprene units, which are the basic building blocks of all terpenes. Isoprene units consist of five carbon atoms and eight hydrogen atoms. Alone, they’re a bit boring, but they shine when configured into groups of two, three, four, and so on.

Myrcene, as we mentioned, is made of two isoprene units, so it is relatively basic. But that doesn’t mean that this terpene doesn’t pack a punch. You can find Myrcene in mangoes, thyme, lemongrass, cardamom, hops, and hemp. Its aroma is complex and musky but fruity with notes of hops, tropical fruits, and woody spices.

In hemp and cannabis plants, Myrcene is both the most commonly found terpene and the most common dominant terpene, meaning that we usually see it as the top terpene in any one cultivar.

Myrcene Terpene Infographic

Natural Sources of Myrcene

Myrcene is not limited to hemp and cannabis. It’s found in a variety of plants and herbs. For instance:

  • Mangoes: The presence of Myrcene is what gives mangoes their distinctive musky aroma. Some enthusiasts even suggest eating a mango before consuming cannabis to enhance the effects, though scientific evidence on this is anecdotal.
  • Thyme: This herb is another rich source of Myrcene. It’s widely used in cooking and traditional medicine for its aromatic and health properties.
  • Lemongrass: Popular in teas and culinary dishes, lemongrass contains high levels of Myrcene and is valued for its calming effects.
  • Cardamom: This spice, often used in cooking and herbal medicine, also boasts Myrcene as one of its components.
  • Hops: Known primarily for their use in beer brewing, hops contain significant amounts of Myrcene, contributing to the aroma and flavor profile of various beers.

The Aroma Profile of Myrcene

The scent of Myrcene is quite distinctive. It’s often described as earthy, musky, and herbal with a hint of fruitiness. This complex aroma profile makes Myrcene a key player in the overall fragrance of many plants and essential oils. The combination of these scents can have a significant impact on the perception of cannabis and hemp products, influencing user preference and experience.

Health Benefits and Uses of Myrcene

Many folk medicine traditions embrace Myrcene for its calming and relaxing effects. In Germany, they use hops, high in both Myrcene and Humulene, as a sleep aid. Similarly, in Mexico, they use lemongrass tea, which is high in Myrcene, for its sedative properties.

Potential Health Benefits

  1. Anti-inflammatory Properties: Myrcene has shown potential in reducing inflammation, which can be beneficial for conditions like arthritis and other inflammatory diseases.
  2. Muscle Relaxant: Research suggests that Myrcene can act as a muscle relaxant, providing relief from cramps and spasms.
  3. Pain Relief / Analgesic Properties: Myrcene may have analgesic properties, making it useful for pain management.
  4. Sleep Aid: Its sedative effects could make Myrcene a natural aid for improving sleep quality.
  5. Anti-anxiety: Myrcene might help reduce anxiety, providing a natural way to manage stress.
  6. Antioxidant Properties: Myrcene exhibits antioxidant properties, which can help protect cells from damage caused by free radicals.

Myrcene and the Entourage Effect

When someone uses Myrcene in combination with CBD and THC, it’s thought to contribute to the “couch lock” effect, adding to the notion that Myrcene may have sedative effects. This interaction is part of what is known as the “entourage effect,” where different cannabis compounds work together to enhance the overall effects of the plant.

Ongoing Research

Research into the potential health benefits of Myrcene is ongoing. Scientists are investigating its efficacy in various applications, including its use as an anti-inflammatory agent, muscle relaxant, and pain reliever. Preliminary results are promising, but more studies are needed to confirm these benefits and understand the mechanisms involved.

Sunset Lake CBD Cultivars Featuring Myrcene

Sunset Lake CBD’s hemp flower cultivars naturally contain many terpenes. Cannabis researchers believe that sun-grown hemp and cannabis produce more terpenes than indoor hemp flowers.

We send all our cultivars’ samples to third-party laboratories for terpene testing. Here are our top cultivars and their Myrcene content:

  • Cherry Abacus: 1.24%
  • Sour Hawaiian Haze: 1.01%
  • Hawaiian Haze: 1.14%
  • Special Sauce: 0.94%
  • Lifter: 0.87%
  • Sour Suver Haze: 0.80%
  • Suver Haze: 0.57%

Note: the percentage of terpenes is reported on a by-weight basis.

Comparing Myrcene Levels in Competitor Products

To give you a clearer picture, let’s compare the Myrcene levels in Sunset Lake CBD’s products with those from other leading brands in the market. This comparison helps highlight the quality and potency of our products.

Competitor A:

  • Strain X: 0.75%
  • Strain Y: 0.89%
  • Strain Z: 0.92%

Competitor B:

  • Strain M: 0.68%
  • Strain N: 0.77%
  • Strain O: 0.83%

As seen, Sunset Lake CBD’s cultivars generally have higher Myrcene content compared to these competitors, ensuring a richer terpene profile and potentially more pronounced effects for users.

Understanding Terpene Testing

Terpene testing is a crucial part of ensuring product quality and consistency. At Sunset Lake CBD, we prioritize transparency and accuracy by using third-party labs for our testing. These tests not only confirm the presence of Myrcene and other terpenes but also measure their concentrations, ensuring that our products meet the highest standards.

The Importance of Terpenes in CBD Products

Terpenes play a significant role in the effectiveness of CBD products. They contribute to the overall therapeutic profile and can influence the experience of the user. By understanding the terpene content, consumers can make more informed choices about which products may be best suited to their needs. Visit our Website Sunset Lake CBD.


  1. What is Myrcene?

Myrcene is a common terpene found in hemp, known for its musky, fruity aroma and potential relaxing effects.

  1. What are the benefits of Myrcene?

Myrcene is believed to have calming, anti-inflammatory, pain-relieving, and antioxidant properties.

  1. Which Sunset Lake CBD products contain the most Myrcene?

Cherry Abacus, Sour Hawaiian Haze, and Hawaiian Haze are among the top Sunset Lake CBD cultivars with high Myrcene content.

  1. How does Myrcene affect the “couch lock” effect?

When combined with CBD and THC, Myrcene is thought to contribute to the “couch lock” effect, enhancing sedative properties.

  1. Where else can you find Myrcene in nature?

Myrcene is found in mangoes, thyme, lemongrass, cardamom, hops, and various hemp and cannabis plants.

As CBD’s therapeutic effects grow in popularity, other parts of the hemp plant beyond cannabinoids are also gaining attention. Terpenes are a class of organic chemicals that cannabis and hemp flower cultivators and manufacturers are beginning to highlight. 

In this post, we’ll answer several questions about terpenes, including:

  • What are terpenes?
  • What are they made of?
  • What are the benefits of terpenes? 
  • What’s so special about hemp flower terpenes?

What Are Terpenes?

Terpenes are molecules responsible for the aroma of fruits, flowers, and even some animals. For example, limonene gives citrus fruits their characteristic acidic, clean-smelling aroma. In technical terms, they are volatile aromatic hydrocarbons, which means they evaporate at room temperature, allowing us to smell and taste them.

Terpenes play a significant role in the plant kingdom. They are involved in the aroma and the plant’s defense mechanisms. Many plants produce terpenes to ward off herbivores and attract pollinators. This dual role highlights the importance of terpenes in the natural world.

What Are Terpenes Made Of?

Terpenes are simple organic molecules composed of building blocks called isoprenes. Isoprenes contain five carbon atoms and eight hydrogen atoms. We classify terpenes based on the number of isoprene units they contain.

  • Monoterpenes: Two isoprene units.
  • Sesquiterpenes: Three isoprene units.
  • Diterpenes: Four isoprene units.

Each type of terpene has unique properties and can be found in various plants. For instance, monoterpenes are often found in essential oils and are known for their strong aromas.

Sesquiterpenes tend to be more stable and are found in spices and medicinal plants. Diterpenes are larger molecules and are often found in resins and certain types of trees.

How Are Terpenes Different from CBD?

Terpenes and cannabinoids, like CBD, are different types of molecules that serve distinct functions. While cannabinoids interact with the body’s endocannabinoid system, terpenes generally do not. Cannabinoids are primarily found in cannabis and hemp plants, whereas terpenes can be found in most plants, consumer products, cosmetics, cleaning agents, and fruits. However, cannabis and hemp flower terpenes and cannabinoids can work together to create different effects on users.

The interaction between terpenes and cannabinoids is often referred to as the “entourage effect.” This concept suggests that the combined effects of cannabinoids and cannabis terpenes can enhance the overall therapeutic benefits. For example, the calming effects of CBD might be amplified by the presence of linalool, a terpene known for its relaxing properties.

Why Do They Matter?

Terpenes provide the aroma and flavor of hemp and cannabis. They may also offer several benefits, although research is still ongoing. Some well-known terpenes and their potential effects include:


Found in mangoes, thyme, lemongrass, and hops, myrcene may help with:

  • Managing inflammation2
  • Pain relief2
  • Sedation, especially when mixed with CBD and THC2
  • Muscle relaxation3
  • Anti-osteoarthritic effects3
  • Neuroprotection3

Myrcene is one of the most abundant terpenes in cannabis. Its presence can significantly influence the overall effects of a particular strain. For instance, cultivars that are high in myrcene are often associated with relaxing and sedative effects, making them popular choices for evening use.


Present in black peppercorns, cloves, cinnamon, hops, and rosemary, caryophyllene may assist with:

  • Managing inflammation3
  • Protecting the gastric system from harmful substances2
  • Blocking pain3

Caryophyllene is unique among terpenes because it can interact directly with the body’s endocannabinoid system, specifically the CB2 receptors. This interaction makes it particularly effective in managing inflammation and pain, offering potential therapeutic benefits that are still being explored in scientific research.

CBD oil bottle next to a lemon, highlighting the terpene spotlight on limonene with the text "Terpene Spotlight: Limonene."


Common in juniper berries, citrus fruits, and some conifer trees, limonene may have:

  • Immunostimulation² 
  • Anxiolytic² (anti-anxiety effects) 
  • Antibacterial²

Limonene is not only valued for its uplifting citrus aroma but also for its potential health benefits. Studies have shown that limonene can enhance mood and alleviate stress, making it a popular choice in aromatherapy. Additionally, its antibacterial properties make it a valuable component in natural cleaning products and cosmetics.


Found in lilacs, nutmeg, cumin, apples, and tea trees, terpinolene may offer:

  • Antioxidant effects³
  • Sedative effects³

Terpinolene is less common than other terpenes but still plays a crucial role in the overall profile of certain cannabis strains. It is known for its fresh, herbal aroma and is believed to contribute to the sedative effects of certain strains, making it beneficial for promoting relaxation and sleep.


Most prevalent in pine trees, pinene may provide:

  • Antibiotic effects
  • Bronchodilation
  • Memory aid

Pinene is one of the most common terpenes in nature, found in pine trees, rosemary, and basil. It is known for its potential to improve airflow and respiratory function, which can be particularly beneficial for individuals with asthma. Additionally, pinene has been studied for its ability to enhance memory and cognitive function.


Present in lavender, rose, and mint, linalool is believed to:

  • Act as a sedative
  • Help treat burns
  • Serve as an anticonvulsant
  • Act as a local anesthetic

Linalool is widely recognized for its calming and relaxing effects, making it a popular ingredient in aromatherapy and personal care products. Its ability to act as a sedative and local anesthetic makes it valuable in medical applications, particularly for managing anxiety and pain.


Found in basil, parsley, mint, kumquats, and hemp, ocimene may have:

  • Anti-fungal properties
  • Anti-inflammatory effects
  • Anti-viral properties

Ocimene is known for its sweet, floral aroma and is commonly used in perfumes and fragrances. Its potential antifungal and anti-inflammatory properties make it an attractive candidate for therapeutic use, particularly in managing respiratory conditions and infections.


Found in sage and the candela tree, bisabolol may provide:

  • Anti-inflammatory effects
  • Gastroprotective effects
  • Pain relief

Bisabolol is commonly found in chamomile and is known for its soothing and calming effects. It is often used in skincare products for its anti-inflammatory and healing properties, making it beneficial for treating skin conditions such as eczema and dermatitis.


Humulene is often associated with the characteristic aroma of hops, a key ingredient in beer. It has been studied for its potential to suppress appetite and reduce inflammation, making it a valuable component in weight management and anti-inflammatory treatments.

How Do Terpenes Make You Feel?

Terpenes can modulate user experience, contributing to the entourage effect. Their specific effects can vary depending on their concentration and combination with other cannabinoids like THC and CBD.

For instance, a strain high in myrcene and linalool might produce a relaxing, sedative effect, while a strain high in limonene and pinene might result in a more uplifting and energizing experience. Understanding the terpene profile of a particular strain can help users select the right product for their desired effects.

What Are The Benefits Of Terpenes?

It’s difficult to definitively say if terpenes are good for you based on current studies. We do know that they are generally safe to consume, as we find them in fruits, herbs, and spices. The potential therapeutic benefits of terpenes are still being researched, but early studies suggest that they may offer a range of health benefits.

For example, terpenes like limonene and linalool are often used in aromatherapy for their mood-enhancing and stress-relieving properties. Other terpenes, such as pinene and caryophyllene, are being studied for their potential to treat respiratory conditions and inflammation. While more research is needed, the existing evidence points to the potential for terpenes to play a significant role in natural health and wellness.

How Sunset Lake CBD Cultivars Compare

Our hemp cultivars contain a wide range of terpenes. Below are our current cultivars and their top three terpenes:

  • Lifter: Myrcene, β-caryophyllene, α-pinene, humulene
  • Sour Lifter: Terpinolene, β-caryophyllene, myrcene, humulene
  • Hawaiian Haze: Myrcene, α-pinene, β-caryophyllene, β-pinene
  • Sour Hawaiian Haze: Myrcene, terpinolene, α-pinene, β-caryophyllene
  • Suver Haze: Myrcene, β-caryophyllene, α-pinene, humulene
  • Sour Suver Haze: Myrcene, terpinolene, β-caryophyllene, humulene
  • Special Sauce: Myrcene, β-caryophyllene, α-pinene, limonene
  • Super Sour Space Candy: Terpinolene, myrcene, β-caryophyllene, humulene
  • Cherry Abacus: Myrcene, α-pinene, β-caryophyllene, β-pinene


Understanding their effects can enhance your appreciation of hemp and cannabis products. By exploring the unique properties of each terpene, you can better tailor your experience to meet your specific needs. As research continues to uncover the potential benefits of terpenes, we look forward to learning more about their role in natural health and wellness. Visit Sunset Lake CBD.


  1. What are terpenes?
    • It is an aromatic molecule found in many plants and some animals, responsible for their distinct scents.
  2. How do terpenes differ from cannabinoids like CBD?
    • Terpenes and cannabinoids are different types of molecules; cannabinoids interact with the body’s endocannabinoid system, while terpenes contribute to aroma and may have various effects.
  3. Can terpenes affect how I feel?
    • Yes, terpenes can modulate the user experience and contribute to the entourage effect, which affects whether users feel energized or relaxed.
  4. Are terpenes safe to use?
    • It is are generally considered safe as they are found in many common products like fruits, cosmetics, and scented candles.
  5. Do all hemp cultivars contain the same terpenes?
    • No, different hemp cultivars contain varying types and concentrations of terpenes, which can affect their aroma and potential effects.


  1. Ben-Shabat, S., Fride, E., Sheskin, T., Tamiri, T., Rhee, M. H., Vogel, Z., Bisogno, T., De Petrocellis, L., Di Marzo, V., & Mechoulam, R. (1998). An entourage effect: inactive endogenous fatty acid glycerol esters enhance 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol cannabinoid activity. European journal of pharmacology, 353(1), 23–31.
  2. Russo E. B. (2011). Taming THC: potential cannabis synergy and phytocannabinoid-terpenoid entourage effects. British journal of pharmacology, 163(7), 1344–1364.
  3. Ahmad, Samoon, and Kevin P. Hill. “The Pharmacodynamics of Cannabis.” Medical Marijuana: A Clinical Handbook, Wolters Kluwer, Philadelphia, 2021, pp. 264–286.
  4. Fernandes, E. S., Passos, G. F., Medeiros, R., da Cunha, F. M., Ferreira, J., Campos, M. M., Pianowski, L. F., & Calixto, J. B. (2007). Anti-inflammatory effects of compounds alpha-humulene and (-)-trans-caryophyllene isolated from the essential oil of Cordia verbenacea. European journal of pharmacology, 569(3), 228–236.


May 25, 2024