While it’s not uncommon for your dog’s paw pads to become rough and cracked, that doesn’t mean that it is healthy for your pup to walk around on rough paws. That’s akin to us walking around with plantar fasciitis— not uncommon, but definitely not comfortable. 

Rough pads can lead to other issues like compulsive licking, joint problems because of uneven gait, and pain. If you notice that your dog has some rough paw pads, it’s time to consider moisturizing. 

In this post, we’ll be talking about, 

  • What CBD Is
  • How CBD can help with paw pads
  • And, how to find a product right for your pup

Continue reading “Can You Use CBD For Your Dog’s Paw Pads?”

Have functional mushrooms taken over your Instagram ad feed? In recent years, mushroom supplements have taken the form of coffee substitutes, teas, and capsules all boasting health benefits and promising that you’ll never want a cup of coffee again (something that this writer can’t even fathom thanks to his tasty CBD coffee.) 

While the idea of a mushroom optimizing your life sounds neat and convenient, how plausible is it? What are functional mushrooms? Are they actually effective? What do they do? 

In this post, we’ll try to answer those questions and more like, 

  • What kinds of functional mushrooms are there?
  • How do you take them?
  • Are they safe?

Continue reading “Functional Mushrooms: What Are They & What Do They Do?”

Google searches for the terms “CBD” and “male enhancement” are on the rise which leaves this writer wondering why. CBD and Viagra (Sildenafil citrate) are two completely different substances that do different things.

Viagra is a prescription drug for erectile dysfunction and CBD is a cannabinoid used for relaxation, focus, and seizure mitigation But, because some companies seem hell-bent on misleading the public with some creative marketing out there, we’ll be using this post to answer the following question.

Is CBD Better Than Viagra?

Answering the question “Is CBD better than Viagra?” is tricky because the two substances are different and address different aspects of health. 

What Does Viagra Do?

Viagra, also known by its generic name Sildenafil, is a medication available via prescription used to treat,

  • Erectile dysfunction – is a condition characterized by the inability to achieve or maintain an erection sufficient for sex. 
  • Pulmonary arterial hypertension – is characterized by high blood pressure in the blood vessels that supply the lungs. If left untreated, pulmonary hypertension can damage the right side of your heart. 

How Does Viagra Work?

When aroused, men’s bodies release nitric oxide— a molecule that facilitates erections and directs blood to the penis with a series of chemical messengers. An enzyme called PDE5 can break down said messengers and make getting an erection harder. 

Viagra is a PDE5 blocker and can prevent it from getting in the way of a good time. Viagra also works by helping relax arteries in the genitals which helps increase blood flow.  

What Does CBD Do?

CBD, short for cannabidiol, is a cannabinoid that works with your endocannabinoid system to achieve and maintain homeostasis. 

Homeostasis can mean different things to different people. The endocannabinoid system takes part in a lot of your body’s functions like,

  • Emotional regulation
  • Pain
  • Inflammation
  • Sleep 
  • Memory 
  • Cardiovascular Function

Related: CBN for Sleep?

CBD Is Not Male Enhancement

CBD as of right now has no reported erectile benefits. One might be able to argue that CBD may help with cardiovascular function and thus should help with erectile dysfunction, but as of yet no such findings have been reported. So, it is best to view marketing claims about CBD and male enhancement through a critical lens.

Can You Take CBD With Viagra? 

Can you take CBD with Viagra? Yes. Should you? Now that’s a different question. 

While there have yet to be any studies on the topic, just knowing how both substances work can help us make educated guesses about the risks involved. 

Viagra has some uncommon side effects like,

  • Dizziness
  • Headaches
  • Priapism (the erection that lasts more than four hours) 

We think that it’s possible CBD may compound those effects or possibly prolong them. 

Agonistic Interaction

Because CBD and Viagra can relax blood vessels and thus lower blood pressure, it’s possible that taking both could compound and lead to sudden dizziness, fatigue, and even fainting. 

Slowed Elimination

CBD generally works through enzyme inhibition, meaning that the molecules your body uses to break down substances are held back by using CBD. In this case, taking CBD with Viagra could slow down your body’s elimination of Viagra meaning that you might be in for a long hard afternoon. 

Apples To Oranges

While both CBD and Viagra have generally good safety profiles, that doesn’t mean you should use CBD to replace Viagra to tackle your erectile dysfunction. It may not work, you may be out of some money, and CBD may interfere with your other medication. 

That said, CBD may greatly benefit you and your situation. Either way, you should consult with your doctor with any questions or concerns.

Hemp is a mind-bending plant when you think about it. Not only does hemp flower produce over 100 compounds called cannabinoids, but it also produces hundreds of different organic compounds called terpenes. Today, we’ll be looking at one that lends itself to some very delicious herbs: Ocimene. 

In the rest of this post, we’ll cover, 

  • What Ocimene is 
  • Where you can find it in nature
  • Ocimene’s potential benefits

What Are Terpenes?

Terpenes are a diverse grouping of organic compounds primarily responsible for the aroma of many plants. Terpenes also play a crucial role in a plant’s self-defense by deterring pests and herbivores, while simultaneously attracting pollinators.1 In hemp, terpenes give the flowers a bitter taste which deters deer and other would-be crop eaters. 

The cosmetic and food industries covet terpenes for their aroma and taste. If you open your fridge right now, you’ll likely find something that contains some form of terpene. Terpenes you’ve likely encountered include: 

What Is Ocimene?

Ocimene is a naturally occurring monoterpene found in a variety of plants, though it derives its name from the word “ṓkimon,” the Greek word for Basil. 

There are three different forms of ocimene found in nature: alpha-, cis-beta-, and trans-beta; all found at relatively similar levels in nature.

You’ll find ocimene in many different plants like basil, parsley, mint, kumquats, and, of course, hemp. In a way, Mediterranean cooking owes a lot to this terpene. Its earthy and herbaceous aroma profile lends itself to many regional dishes. 

Fun fact: The plant genus name Ocimum also derives its name from “ṓkimon.” Many of the plants inside contain some level of ocimene. 

What Is Ocimene Used For? 

Outside of the kitchen, we already use ocimene for quite a few things. In cannabis products, it’s thought to have uplifting effects on users.

Cleaning agent

While ocimene doesn’t boast any cleaning abilities, it is often added to cleaning products as an aromatic agent as we humans find its scent quite pleasant. You can find ocimene added to deodorants, hard-surface cleaners, and even laundry detergents. 

Insect Repellant 

Some studies suggest that ocimene may act as a natural insect repellent and in some cases an insect inhibitor, meaning that it may be able to stunt the development of insect aphids.2

If true, these findings could be a huge breakthrough for organic and no-spray farmers. 

Ocimene’s Potential Benefits

Outside of the kitchen, the house, the garden, and IN the lab, ocimene may have some pretty fantastic benefits that we have yet to fully understand. Below is a non-exhaustive list of potential benefits that it may have. 


A 2015 study published in the Journal of Natural Medicines found that when combined with alpha-pinene, ocimene was a powerful anti-yeast and anti-fungal agent.3 


A 2013 study published in the Food and Chemical Toxicology journal noted that ocimene may have strong anti-inflammatory properties.4 This study, like the study above, did not observe ocimene on its own. Ratherit was part of a larger blend of essential oils from the Water Hemlock (Oenanthe crocata L.) plant. 


A 2008 study published in a Chemistry & Biodiversity report studied and analyzed several Lebanese tree species and their essential oils.5 Ocimene, working together with other terpenes, was found to have inhibitory effects against the herpes simplex virus and a SARS-CoV virus (not COVID-19)

Sunset Lake CBD Cultivars Featuring Ocimene

At Sunset Lake CBD, we pride ourselves on our approach to sungrown hemp. Not only do we think that producing hemp flower outdoors is better for the environment, but it’s also been shown to increase terpene production in the flowers. This year we’ve got a handful of cultivars that prominently feature ocimene including, 

We report terpene content based on dry weight of the flowers.


  1. Divekar, Pratap Adinath et al. “Plant Secondary Metabolites as Defense Tools against Herbivores for Sustainable Crop Protection.” International journal of molecular sciences vol. 23,5 2690. 28 Feb. 2022, doi:10.3390/ijms23052690
  2. Kang, Zhi-Wei et al. “Volatile β-Ocimene Can Regulate Developmental Performance of Peach Aphid Myzus persicae Through Activation of Defense Responses in Chinese Cabbage Brassica pekinensis.” Frontiers in plant science vol. 9 708. 28 May. 2018, doi:10.3389/fpls.2018.00708
  3. Cavaleiro, Carlos et al. “Antifungal activity of the essential oil of Angelica major against Candida, Cryptococcus, Aspergillus and dermatophyte species.” Journal of natural medicines vol. 69,2 (2015): 241-8. doi:10.1007/s11418-014-0884-2
  4. Valente, J et al. “Antifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Oenanthe crocata L. essential oil.” Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association vol. 62 (2013): 349-54. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2013.08.083
  5. Loizzo, Monica R et al. “Phytochemical analysis and in vitro antiviral activities of the essential oils of seven Lebanon species.” Chemistry & biodiversity vol. 5,3 (2008): 461-70. doi:10.1002/cbdv.200890045

Have you ever wondered why your CBD oil helps you relax at the end of the day or why music sounds amazing after a recreational edible? All of hemp and cannabis’s effects can be traced back to the expansive system of receptors and neurotransmitters found throughout your body called the endocannabinoid system (ECS). 

But it doesn’t end there. The endocannabinoid system plays a role in many of our bodily functions. In this post, we’re going to cover,

  • Three main components of the ECS
  • Physiological functions our ECS regulates 
  • The role phytocannabinoids play in our ECS

Continue reading “Understanding The Endocannabinoid System (ECS)”

Not only does hemp produce more than 100 compounds called cannabinoids, but it also produces a multitude of aromatic compounds called terpenes. Humulene, the topic of this post, lends itself to one of the world’s most popular consumer products: beer. 

In this post, we’ll cover, 

  • What humulene is 
  • Where you can find humulene, both in nature and in manufactured products, 
  • And, what potential benefits humulene might have

Continue reading “Terpene Spotlight: Humulene”

Buckle up cannabinoids, there’s a new wunderkind taking the world of organic cannabis compounds by storm. Terpenes, once thought to be primarily aromatic compounds, are now being studied and isolated to study their potential health benefits. One such terpene, thought to have huge cosmetic and anti-inflammatory potential is called bisabolol. 

In this post, we’ll cover, 

  • What bisabolol is 
  • Where you can find it in nature
  • And, bisabolol’s potential health benefits 

Continue reading “Terpene Spotlight: Bisabolol”

You may not have ever heard of adenosine before, but it is the reason that most coffee drinkers need their first cup in the morning. Adenosine is a neurotransmitter that can make you tired in the morning and later in the evening, but it can do so much more. It’s also at the mercy of our favorite cannabinoid. CBD and adenosine research is still lacking, but we’ll talk about why we may want to direct more attention towards their interaction. 

In this post, we’re going to cover

  • What adenosine is 
  • How adenosine interacts with our brains
  • How CBD can affect adenosine interactions
  • And what that means about CBD’s potential benefits 

What Is CBD?

The abbreviated form of cannabidiol, CBD is one of the 100+ cannabinoids produced by flowering hemp plants. CBD is non-psychoactive, meaning that its consumption will not make you feel high or intoxicated like THC would. 

While experts are still unsure about how CBD interacts with your body, we do know that it works closely with your endocannabinoid system— an intricate network of neurotransmitters, receptors, and enzymes. Your endocannabinoid system helps manage your bodily functions like, 

  • Sleep 
  • Mood 
  • Appetite
  • Memory 
  • Central Nervous System Development
  • And more…

What Is Adenosine?

Adenosine is an endogenous neurotransmitter made up of a nitrogen base (adenine) combined with a sugar molecule (ribose). Adenosine can combine with one, two, or three phosphate groups forming adenosine monophosphate (AMP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), respectively.

By itself, adenosine is a neuromodulator, meaning that it can influence the activities of the neurotransmitters around it like dopamine and glutamate. One of its primary functions is to calm the central nervous system by promoting relaxation and drowsiness. Adenosine builds up in your brain over the course of the day, making you feel more tired as the day wears on. 

Note that caffeine (the psychoactive substance found in coffee) works against adenosine, blocking it from binding with the appropriate receptors resulting in feelings of alertness. Beware though that this effect will only last for so long before your brain’s neurotransmitters eventually win out. 

Read more: CBD Coffee: Everything You Should Know

How Does Adenosine Work?

Much like melatonin, adenosine is a chemical that works on a 24-hour schedule as part of our circadian rhythm. More and more adenosine builds up in the body as the day goes on. 

Adenosine controls certain functions in your body by binding to specific receptors in your brain and central nervous system. Said receptors are important to many of our day-to-day functioning and worth a closer look. 

A1 Receptors:

When activated, the A1 receptor curbs neurotransmitter release which can have a calming effect on the brain. Fewer chemicals flying through your brain means that you’re more calm. A1 receptors are involved in sleep regulation, pain management, and heart rate regulation. 

A2A Receptors:

Found primarily in the part of the brain that links motivation to motor skills and decision-making, the A2A receptors can both stop or facilitate neurotransmission— the ability of neurons to share information with each other. 

A2B Receptors:

Found in various tissues like blood vessels and white blood cells, A2B receptors help with immune response, inflammation, and reducing blood pressure

A3 Receptors:

Similar to A2B receptors, A3 receptors are located throughout your body and help regulate your immune system, its response to external threats, and inflammation. 

How Does CBD Affect Adenosine?

The interaction between CBD and adenosine is understudied, but there have been some cursory findings. 

CBD has been found to increase adenosine signaling by inhibiting the reuptake of adenosine.1 When CBD prevents the reuptake of adenosine, it effectively increases adenosine availability in your body. This surplus of adenosine must go somewhere, so it activates the four A receptors listed earlier, promoting a sense of calm, relaxation, and sleepiness. 

It may be these adenosine interactions that give CBD its benefits. 

Anti-Anxiety effects: 

Adenosine and the A2A receptors may help alleviate stress and anxiety symptoms by promoting relaxation2

Anti-Inflammatory effects:

Adenosine has anti-inflammatory effects. CBD’s influence and uptake inhibition may further enhance adenosine’s anti-inflammatory potential.3

Sleep Benefits:

While not thoroughly studied, we can extrapolate and hypothesize that CBD and its interaction with adenosine may help regulate sleep. Adenosine increases an individual’s sleep pressure, and when inhibited from reentering your brain, excess adenosine is likely to make you more tired. 

Read more: CBN For Sleep: Can This New Cannabinoid Help You Feel More Rested?

Further Study Is Needed

Research into CBD and adenosine interactions is still new, but the emerging findings are promising. As more rodent studies show promise for CBD therapeutic uses, we may even start to see human trials. For now, most findings into adenosine and its interactions with cannabidiol and cannabinoids at large are one-off and should be taken with a grain of salt.


  1. Carrier, Erica J et al. “Inhibition of an equilibrative nucleoside transporter by cannabidiol: a mechanism of cannabinoid immunosuppression.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America vol. 103,20 (2006): 7895-900. doi:10.1073/pnas.0511232103
  2. Stollenwerk, Todd M et al. “Contribution of the Adenosine 2A Receptor to Behavioral Effects of Tetrahydrocannabinol, Cannabidiol and PECS-101.” Molecules (Basel, Switzerland) vol. 26,17 5354. 2 Sep. 2021, doi:10.3390/molecules26175354
  3. Mecha, M et al. “Cannabidiol provides long-lasting protection against the deleterious effects of inflammation in a viral model of multiple sclerosis: a role for A2A receptors.” Neurobiology of disease vol. 59 (2013): 141-50. doi:10.1016/j.nbd.2013.06.016

Among the most popular CBD searches on Google is the age-old problem for men: How to use CBD for ED. ED, short for erectile dysfunction, is a common condition that affects many men of all ages making it one of the more common sexual health issues in the world so it’s no wonder folks are turning to more natural avenues to fix the flaccid issue. 

In this post, we’re going to talk about,

  • What erectile dysfunction is, 
  • Whether or not CBD for ED is a viable option, 
  • And, what else you can do to address ED’s endless causes

What Is CBD?

CBD is short for cannabidiol and is one of the more than 100 naturally occurring chemical compounds called cannabinoids produced by the cannabis plant. We find CBD in abundance in specifically bred hemp flower. 

By itself, CBD is a non-psychoactive cannabinoid meaning it will not make you feel intoxicated and does not lead to dependency. 

While experts aren’t entirely sure how CBD interacts with your body, we do know that it works closely with your endocannabinoid system; an intricate cell-signaling system that manages bodily functions like: 

  • Sleep 
  • Mood 
  • Appetite
  • Memory 
  • Central Nervous System Development
  • And more…

What Is Erectile Dysfunction (ED)?

Also known as impotence, erectile dysfunction is characterized by the persisting inability to achieve or maintain an erection. Erectile dysfunction shouldn’t be confused with the occasional difficulty achieving an erection due to stress, performance anxiety, or fatigue. 

Erectile dysfunction is categorized as such because of its ongoing nature that affects the quality of life and makes it difficult for a man to engage in sexual activity. ED can also cause reduced sexual desire and ejaculation issues. 

ED can also be a symptom of a more serious illness like atherosclerosis (blocked arteries), heart disease, and high blood sugar. If you started experiencing consistent issues getting and maintaining an erection, you should see a healthcare professional. 

The Causes of Erectile Dysfunction

ED can be caused by both physical and psychological issues, often working together. Some of the most common causes of ED include:

Vascular Issues

Conditions that negatively affect blood flower can impede blood supply to the penis making it difficult to get and maintain an erection. 


Excessive body weight can cause many other issues including hormonal imbalances, type II diabetes, and vascular issues, all of which can contribute to ED. 

Neurological Disorders

Multiple Sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, and other nerve injuries can disrupt the signals responsible for initiating and maintaining an erection. 

Medication Use

Many medications used to treat high blood pressure (like beta blockers), depression, and anxiety (SSRIs & SNRIs) list erectile dysfunction as a side effect

Substance Use

Smoking cigarettes or using alcohol excessively can interfere with the signals sent to your brain that tell the penis to fill with blood. Substance use can also reduce testosterone production which can negatively affect ED. 

Anxiety & Depression 

Performance anxiety, depression, and general anxiety can all interfere with the way your brain communicates with your penis, thus further exacerbating the anxiety. 


Sometimes your body just won’t listen to your brain. Getting and maintaining an erection takes energy. Excessive fatigue can lead to temporary ED.

Can You Use CBD For ED?

This is a tricky question. Because erectile dysfunction can be caused by so many underlying issues, it’s impossible to say whether or not CBD will be able to help. Not only that, but it would be irresponsible to do so. 

CBD cannot help with ED’s underlying issues like obesity, neurological injuries, substance use, and more. You should be wary of any company or brand that claims that their CBD products can help with ED. That would be like if superfood producers said that their anti-oxidant-rich acai bowls could prevent cancer. Irresponsible.

Can CBD Act Like Viagra?

Not only will CBD not address most of the underlying issues of erectile dysfunction, it won’t address the symptom itself. CBD will not act like Viagra (Sildenafil citrate) and will not give you an erection.

CBD And ED’s Underlying Causes

While CBD won’t address most of the physical causes of ED, it may be able to help with some of the underlying psychological causes of erectile dysfunction. 


A 2015 review of nearly 50 independent studies suggested that CBD may help alleviate generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder, and other forms of anxiety.1 If it is true that CBD helps with anxiety, using CBD before a sexual encounter may help with performance-related anxiety and leave you more at ease, thus helping with situational ED. 


While CBD won’t help with immediate fatigue as it doesn’t act like a stimulant, using CBD to better manage your sleep may help with fatigue in the long run. Many people use CBD oils and infused edibles to help with sleep-related issues.

Does CBD Help With Blood Flow?

One last avenue that’s worth mentioning is CBD’s effect on blood flow. There aren’t many large-scale studies yet, but a few suggest CBD may help increase blood flow to the brain after one dose, and more generally after repeated dosing.2 While we don’t know why this is, some preclinical studies have shown that CBD use can reduce vascular inflammation in isolated arteries.

CBD And ED Studies

As of this writing, there are only a handful of studies into the link between cannabis use and erectile dysfunction and even fewer into the link between CBD specifically and ED. 

A study published in 2019 in the American Journal of Men’s Health found that their data suggested that ED is twice as high in cannabis users than in the control group.3 While there could be many reasons why that’s the case, it warrants further research and should be taken with a grain of salt.

Instead Of CBD, Focus On…

Cannabidiol (CBD) as of right now isn’t a viable treatment for ED and likely never will be. Instead of getting discouraged, focus instead on the underlying causes of ED,


Better sleep will help you in so many facets of life including lowering stress, reducing anxiety, curbing impulsivity, and more. More sleep also means more energy and if you struggle with fatigue-related ED symptoms, getting a solid eight hours of rest could certainly help you. 

Related: CBN For Sleep


Finding better ways to manage stress and addressing chronic stress will help you get better sleep, make maintaining a diet easier, and make you feel better. Getting rid of stress is easier said than done though and will take some trial and error. When you find something that works for you, keep at it! 


Exercise, and especially regular cardio sessions, will help your heart and vascular system immensely. If your ED is related to your heart health, doing regular cardio exercises will help you immensely. 

CBD For Erectile Dysfunction: The Flacid Truth

The idea that CBD can help with ED is one dreamt up by marketers to sell you CBD products. If you come across any cannabis or CBD brands that claim that their products can help solve your erection issues, be very wary. Are those claims backed by any scientific studies? And, if they are, who paid for those studies? 

The unfortunate truth here is that while CBD may be able to help with a lot of things, maintaining an erection isn’t one of them.


  1. Blessing, Esther M et al. “Cannabidiol as a Potential Treatment for Anxiety Disorders.” Neurotherapeutics : the journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics vol. 12,4 (2015): 825-36. doi:10.1007/s13311-015-0387-1
  2. Sultan, Salahaden R et al. “The effects of acute and sustained cannabidiol dosing for seven days on the haemodynamics in healthy men: A randomised controlled trial.” British journal of clinical pharmacology vol. 86,6 (2020): 1125-1138. doi:10.1111/bcp.14225
  3. Pizzol, Damiano et al. “Relationship Between Cannabis Use and Erectile Dysfunction: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.” American journal of men’s health vol. 13,6 (2019): 1557988319892464. doi:10.1177/1557988319892464

If you’ve visited a retailer that sells hemp or cannabis you may have come across the term “entourage effect.” No, they’re not referring to the HBO show of the mid- to late-aughts. The entourage effect as coined by cannabis scientists refers to the compounding nature of hemp’s cannabinoids. Taken individually cannabinoids can only do so much, but together they can do so much more.

In the rest of this post, we’ll tease out,

  • What the entourage effect is
  • Where the term was coined
  • And, all of the moving parts

Continue reading “The Entourage Effect: What Is It & How Does It Work?”

Since the passage of the 2018 Farm Bill, cannabinoids, namely CBD (and a few others), have been attracting some attention. While many try to make a quick buck by selling cannabinoid-infused products as miracle cures, the science behind cannabinoids is much more nuanced. 

In this post, we’re going to discuss, 

  • What cannabinoids are 
  • How they interact with our body
  • And, how external cannabinoids like CBD figure into the equation

What Are Cannabinoids: The Basics

Cannabinoids are a type of chemical compound produced by flowering cannabis plants. In this context, cannabis plants refer to Cannabis Sativa L. plants and mean both hemp and THC-dominant cannabis plants. What makes cannabinoids special is their ability to interact with the endocannabinoid systems (ECS) found in mammals, including us humans. 

As of today, researchers have discovered over 100 different cannabinoids produced by the cannabis plant, though they expect to discover more. 

The Endocannabinoid System

The discovery of the endocannabinoid system in the 1980s and early 1990s shed light on the importance of cannabinoids in the human body. Our endocannabinoid system consists of three parts: endocannabinoids, receptors, and enzymes


Endocannabinoids act as neurotransmitters, carrying messages between your cells, helping them maintain homeostasis. Think of them as your body’s bike messengers delivering messages to receptors all over your body. The messages can include,

  • Produce and release growth hormone
  • Release dopamine
  • Time to release melatonin 

The first endocannabinoid, 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), was discovered in 1992 in the lab of Israeli chemist, Raphael Mechoulam. Since then, researchers have discovered and cataloged over a hundred more cannabinoids that interact with your ECS. 1


Researchers have identified two different types of cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2 receptors. While CB1 receptors are found mainly in your brain and central nervous system, CB2 receptors are found throughout your immune system and all over your internal organs. 

Researchers discovered and cloned these receptors in the early 90s— CB1 in 1990 and CB2 in 1993. The discovery and confirmation of these receptors led researchers to hypothesize and find endogenous cannabinoids (endo-cannabinoids) that are produced inside your body. 1


Once cannabinoids complete their messaging tasks, enzymes break them down so that your body can safely dispose of them. The primary enzymes responsible for endocannabinoid system cleanup are fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL). 2

What Are Phytocannabinoids

Your body produces endocannabinoids for internal purposes, but we started this post talking about cannabinoids produced by the cannabis plant. We call those external, plant-based cannabinoids phytocannabinoids. 

Phytocannabinoids mimic our body’s endocannabinoids and interact with our CB1 and CB2 receptors in varying ways. There are many different phytocannabinoids, but the most popular include, 

Cannabidiol (CBD)

CBD is short for cannabidiol and unlike THC and CBN it’s not psychoactive, meaning that it doesn’t cause intoxication or make the user feel “high.” Instead, CBD interacts with both your CB1 and CB2 receptors to facilitate the uptake of beneficial endocannabinoids. 

Back to our bike messenger analogy. If our endocannabinoids are messengers carrying important directions to different parts of our body, CBD is like the traffic cop who stops traffic and lets those messengers through. This can be quite helpful when our endocannabinoids are sending anti-inflammatory, pain-relieving, and anti-anxiety messages. 

Cannabinol (CBN)

Cannabinol, shortened to CBN, is mildly psychoactive. It is the oxidated form of THC and interacts with our ECS and CB1 receptors in the same way. While we still don’t know for certain the isolated effects of CBN on humans, we believe that it may help facilitate better sleep

Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)

The most well-known phytocannabinoid thanks to its psychoactive properties, THC is a strong CB1 agonist. When THC binds to our CB1 receptors, we may feel euphoria, time dilation, and changes in mood and cognitive skills. 

The Entourage Effect

While we’ve identified over 100 cannabinoids to date, it’s important to note that cannabinoids, both endocannabinoids and phytocannabinoids, don’t work (well) in isolation. Research suggests that the interaction between the full spectrum of cannabinoids is vital to experiencing any benefits. This interaction is known as the “entourage effect.”

What Are Cannabinoids: Summarized

While the discovery of endocannabinoids and the endocannabinoid system is truly exciting, it’s important to realize that it’s relatively uncharted biology and that we know very little about how the system works. 

That being said, we know even less about phytocannabinoids, which is why we don’t make any medical claims about our handcrafted hemp products. We do believe that cannabinoids can be beneficial, but each person needs to determine what their needs are and what product is right for them.


  1. International League Against Epilepsy, “The discovery of the endocannabinoid system: Centuries in the making”, Newswise.com, Newswise Inc., Jan. 27, 2019, www.newswise.com/articles/the-discovery-of-the-endocannabinoid-system-centuries-in-the-making, Aug. 17, 2023
  2. Basavarajappa, Balapal S. Critical Enzymes Involved in Endocannabinoid Metabolism.” Protein and Peptide Lettersvol. 14no. 32006p. 237https://doi.org/10.2174/092986607780090829. Accessed 17 Aug. 2023.